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  • 導言

    近期,制冷劑行業驟然熱了起來,HCFC-22(R22)3月和4月份的漲幅分別達到18%和12%左右,相關制冷劑上市公司的股價更在5月中旬出現漲停,生產R22等產品的企業開工實現滿負荷。有制冷劑企業樂觀地認為,在其帶動下,部分制冷劑產品將再現2011年強勁復蘇勢頭。而另一方面,HFC-134a等第三代制冷劑產品陷入了國內產能過剩、國外“雙反”調查的雙重壓力之中,企業利潤大幅度下滑。針對目前制冷劑的現狀,產業應如何實現可持續發展?今天中國制冷網帶大家一起走進制冷劑的世界。

    制冷劑簡介

    制冷劑又稱制冷工質,在南方一些地區俗稱雪種。它是在制冷系統中不斷循環并通過其本身的狀態變化以實現制冷的工作物質。利用制冷劑的相變來傳遞熱量,制冷劑在蒸發器內吸收被冷卻介質(水或空氣等)的熱量而汽化,在冷凝器中將熱量傳遞給周圍空氣或水而冷凝。當前能用作制冷劑的物質有80多種,最常用的是氨、氟里昂類、水和少數碳氫化合物等。
    『詳情』

    按成分有以下幾種。 1、單一制冷劑 2、混合制冷劑。 (注:單一制冷劑只含有一種化學物質,其熱物理性能參數恒定不變,如,R134a、R152a等制冷劑都具有較高的能量效率。 混合制冷劑是由兩種或兩種以上制冷劑組成的混合物。)『詳情』
    詳細分類如下:

    霍尼韋爾是一家財富100強之一的多元化、高科技的先進制造企業,其業務涉及航空產品和服務、樓宇、家庭和工業控制技術、渦輪增壓器以及特性材料。

    『詳情』

    創立于1802年的杜邦公司憑借創新的產品、材料和服務,通過與客戶、政府機構、非政府組織和思想領袖開展協作,為全球人們提供充足健康食物、以及保護生命與環境等。

    『詳情』

    作為一家全球性的化學品公司及法國領先的化學品生產企業,阿科瑪每天都在建設化工產業的未來。生產高水準的專業化學品,為包括氣候變化等多項挑戰提供實際解決方案。

    『詳情』

    更多>>

    用作感溫工質;優級和一級R290,可用作制冷劑替代R22、R502

    冷媒名稱:R290
    化學名稱:丙烷
    化學分子式:CH3CH2CH3
    分子量:44.096g/mol
    沸點:-42.2℃
    臨界溫度:96.67℃
    25℃飽和蒸氣壓:0.475MPa
    25℃飽和液體密度:492kg/m3
    破壞臭氧潛能值(ODP):0
    全球變暖系數:0.01

    一種新的用于汽車空調的制冷劑,由于GWP值很小,被稱為HFO族

    冷媒名稱:HFO1234yf
    化學名稱:四氟丙烯
    化學分子式:CF3CF=CH2
    分子量:72.58
    沸點:-29℃
    臨界溫度:95℃
    25℃飽和蒸氣壓:0.673Mpa
    25℃飽和液體密度:1.09g/cm3
    破壞臭氧潛能值(ODP):0
    全球變暖系數:4

    是一種新型環保制冷劑,不破壞臭氧層。

    冷媒名稱:R410A
    化學成分:R32和R125的混合物
    外觀:不渾濁
    分子量:72.58
    沸點:-51.6℃
    臨界溫度:72.5℃
    臨界壓力:4.95Mpa
    臨界密度:0.5g/cm3
    破壞臭氧潛能值(ODP):0
    全球變暖系數:1730

    主流低溫環保制冷劑,用于新冷凍設備上初裝和維修過程的再添加。

    冷媒名稱:R404A
    化學成分:五氟乙烷/三氟乙烷/四氟乙烷 混合物
    化學分子式:CHF2CF3/CF3CH2F/CH3CF3
    沸點:-46.1℃
    臨界溫度:72.4℃
    臨界壓力:3688.7KPa
    破壞臭氧潛能值(ODP):0
    全球變暖系數:3850

    可應用于新型中高溫固定式商業制冷系統。完全不破壞臭氧層。

    冷媒名稱:R-134a
    化學分子式:CH2FCF3
    沸點:-26.1℃
    臨界溫度:101.1℃
    臨界壓力:4066.6KPa
    25℃飽和蒸氣壓:661.9KPa
    液體密度:1188.1kg/m3
    破壞臭氧潛能值(ODP):0
    全球變暖系數:1300
    ASHRAE安全級別:A1

    是一種安全低溫制冷劑,對臭氧層危害大所以逐漸被R410A代替。

    冷媒名稱:R22
    化學名稱:二氟一氯甲烷
    化學分子式:CHCLF2
    分子量:86.48
    沸點:-40.82
    臨界溫度:96.15℃
    臨界壓力:4.75MPa
    30℃飽和液體密度:1.17g/cm3
    破壞臭氧潛能值(ODP):0
    全球變暖系數:1700

    在蒸汽壓縮式制冷機中,制冷劑選擇除了要有較好的熱力性質和物理化學性質外,更應具有優良的環境特性。具體要求如下:
    1.對人類生態環境無破壞作用。
    2.臨界溫度較高。
    3.在工作溫度范圍內,具有適當的飽合蒸汽壓力,最起碼蒸發壓力不得低于大氣壓力,以免外部空氣滲入系統中。
    4.單位容積制冷量大。
    5.粘度和密度小。
    6.熱導率高。
    7.不燃燒,不爆炸,無毒。
    8.等熵指數小。
    9.凝固溫度低。避免在蒸發溫度下出現凝固。
    10.具有良好的絕緣性能。
    11.價格低易獲得。
    12.單位容積壓縮功小。『詳情』

    制冷劑的選用是一個比較復雜的技術經濟問題,需要考慮的因素很多,選擇時應根據具體情況,進行全面的技術分析。
    1.考慮環保的要求。
    2.考慮制冷溫度的要求。
    根據制冷劑溫度和冷卻條件的不同,選用高溫(低壓)、中溫(中壓)、低溫(高壓)制冷劑。通常選擇的制冷劑的標準蒸發溫度要低于制冷溫度10℃。選擇制冷劑還應考慮制冷裝置的冷卻條件、使用環境等。運行中的冷凝壓力不應超過壓縮機安全使用條件的規定值。
    3.考慮制冷劑的性質。
    選用那些無毒、不爆炸、不燃燒的制冷劑;選用制冷劑應傳熱好、阻力小、與制冷系統用材料相容性好。
    4.考慮壓縮機的類型。
    不同的制冷壓縮機的工作原理有所不同。體積式壓縮機是通過縮小制冷劑蒸氣的體積提高其壓力的,一般選用單位體積制冷量大的制冷劑,如R134a,R22等。 制冷劑的種類很多,隨著科學技術的進步.新工質不斷出現,以適宜于不同的制冷裝置。『詳情』

      空調在作制冷運行時,低溫低壓的制冷劑氣體被壓縮機吸入后加壓變成高溫高壓的制冷劑氣體,高溫高壓的制冷劑氣體經過冷凝器(一般空調是風冷,即室外機的散熱銅管)在室外換熱器中放熱,變成中溫高壓的液體(熱量通過室外循環空氣帶走),中溫高壓的液體再經過毛細管膨脹降壓后變為低溫低壓的液體,低溫低壓的液體制冷劑經過蒸發器(室內機銅管)吸熱蒸發后變為低溫低壓的氣體(室內空氣經過換熱器表面被冷卻降溫,達到使室內溫度下降的目的),低溫低壓的制冷劑氣體再被壓縮機吸入,如此循環。總的來說,空調制冷劑在空調系統內就是一個壓縮--冷凝--膨脹--蒸發的一個循環。

    制冷劑發展趨勢

      制冷技術的歷史實際是制冷劑發展過程的歷史。早期人們利用儲存天然冰、水的蒸發效應及其他一些方法來制冷,19世紀30年代,Perkins發明了蒸氣壓縮式制冷循環后,人類迎來了制冷技術的發展期,而制冷劑的發明、更新和替換始終貫穿整個過程。目前根據新時期的發展要求,制冷劑又將面臨新的挑戰。目前人們將制冷劑的發展分為4個階段,各階段的特征如左圖所示。
      總得來說制冷劑的發展趨勢應該滿足生態環境可持續發展的要求,并且推動其進一步發展。根據可持續發展中經濟發展與保護資源、保護生態環境的協調一致的核心要求,制冷劑的發展方向有兩個:
      一個是環保,使用綠色環保的制冷劑已經是大勢所趨,綠色環保制冷劑可以是合成的,也可以是天然的,雖然合成的環保制冷劑也對臭氧不會造成破壞,但從地球生態的可持續發展來看天然制冷劑是最理想的選擇。
       第二個是節能,隨著人們生活水平的提高制冷空調等設備越來越普及,同時其消耗的大量的能源也越來越引起人們的注意,今夏我國18個省市出現電力緊缺問題,中國電監會的一項調查顯示,供需矛盾加劇造成今夏電力吃緊,其中空調制冷負荷快速增長是不可忽視因素。因此除了改進制冷技術外還可從制冷劑上下手,通過研制新型節能制冷劑降低制冷空調設備的能耗也是一個發展方向。
      綜上所述,制冷劑的發展是與環境保護和地球生態環境的可持續發展密切相關的,制冷劑的發展趨勢體現了環境的可持續發展的要求。
    『詳情』

    英國鼓勵熱泵行業使用低GWP值制冷劑
    英國能源和環境變化部(DECC)日前公布了一項針對熱泵制冷劑泄漏的評估研究。報告指出,隨著熱泵在英國的使用越來越廣泛,與之相關的制冷劑排放問題就變得更加突出。 『詳細』
    OZ碳氫制冷劑酒店用半年省電14萬
    日前,湖南同大節能科技有限公司銷售的碳氫制冷劑產品——OZ制冷劑在長沙鴻圖商務酒店成功應用。據了解,使用OZ制冷劑比傳統的氟利昂制冷劑要節能環保。使用半年OZ制冷劑則可以節省電費14萬元。 『詳細』
    1-4月委內瑞拉制冷劑生產降幅大
    委內瑞拉化工協會的調查報告顯示,2014年1-4月全國化工行業生產同比下降約50%,處于近3年的平均水平之下。降幅最大的產品為:染料、制冷劑、膠水、樹脂、涂料和潤滑油。 『詳細』
    浙江衢州制冷劑迎來出口旺季
    浙江衢州是全國重要危險化學品出口基地,其主要產品R22制冷劑輸往美洲、非洲以及阿拉伯、東南亞等國家和地區。隨著國外市場需求擴大及配額政策利好影響,近期出口態勢迅猛。『詳細』
    美商務部裁中制冷劑存傾銷行為
    美國商務部5月22日宣布初裁結果,認定從中國進口的一種制冷劑產品存在傾銷行為。這種制冷劑產品是1,1,1,2-四氟乙烷或者同類化學產品,主要用于車載空調系統。 『詳細』
    制冷劑產業如何實現可持續發展
    日前,制冷劑行業驟然熱了起來:HCFC-22(R22)由3月初的1萬元/噸連漲兩月,3月和4月份的漲幅分別達到18%和12%左右,短短兩個月時間的累計漲幅超過30%;相關制冷劑上市公司的股價更在5月中旬出現漲停,生產R22等產品的企業開工實現滿負荷。『詳細』
    2014年液氯帶動制冷劑價格出現大漲
    數據監測,二氯甲烷從4月初一直持續上漲,目前已突破4000元/噸,報價至4110元/噸,一個半月漲幅達43.21%,創近兩年來新高。二氯甲烷4月初報價在2800元/噸附近,5月19日報價突破4200元/噸。5月10日到19日,二氯甲烷上漲16%左右。『詳細』

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