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    第三方冷鏈物流的標準化之路

      【中國制冷網】第三方冷鏈物流(Third-PartyColdChainLogistics,即3PCCL),指冷凍冷藏生產經營企業為集中精力搞好主業和節約成本,把原來屬于自己處理的冷鏈物流活動,以合同方式委托給專業冷鏈物流服務企業,同時通過信息系統與冷鏈物流企業保持密切聯系,以達到對冷鏈物流全程管理控制的一種冷鏈物流運作與管理方式。

      如今企業由于自身硬件和軟件設施的欠缺,以及管理方式和技術等因素無法完成全部的冷鏈物流活動,從而往往在經營過程中把冷鏈環節外包給第三方來服務,這是一項系統的工程。

      所謂第三方是相對“第一方”發貨人和“第二方”收貨人而言的。是由第三方冷鏈物流企業來承擔企業物流活動的一種物流形態。

      第三方冷鏈物流企業既不屬于第一方,也不屬于第二方,而是通過與第一方或第二方的合作來提供其專業化的物流服務,它不擁有商品,不參與商品的買賣,而是為客戶提供以合同為約束、以結盟為基礎的、系列化、個性化、信息化的物流代理服務。

      人們常說“民以食為天”,坊間所流傳的“賣飯的不會被餓死”也并非字面理解的那么簡單,它深層次地告訴人們這是一樁穩打穩賺的生意,近年的多項投資調查也表明食品、餐飲已經成為最賺錢的行業。

      按理說,伴隨著這兩個行業興起的冷鏈物流應該是一派繁榮之景。然而,現實中的第三方冷鏈物流卻是一批倒下去一批又興起,周而復始,似乎沒有幾棵“常青樹”,更難談建立冷鏈物流的“商業帝國”。

      許多物流企業欲轉戰冷鏈市場之后,分羹不得反嘗“折翼之痛”。

      標準化是個大“盲區”

      標準化問題是物流行業常提常新的話題,而對于冷鏈物流,面臨最大的標準化問題莫過于冷鏈斷裂,就像木桶效應一樣,冷鏈的質量其實取決于最薄弱的環節,如果鏈條斷了,也就失去了冷鏈的意義。

      現實狀況是很多產品生產出來之后,打冷時間就不夠,也就是產品在工廠就不符合溫度要求,這一塊沒有人進行監管。

      另一方面,因為集中送至第三方倉庫,很多企業為節省成本常常選擇自有車輛進行運輸,自有車輛運輸并不符合標準,到達第三方冷庫時,溫度已經上升到十多度,最終送達超市收貨部,極有可能滯留在收貨部,那種環境下,很多都是露天的,根本沒有溫度管理。

      這樣就會出現一個問題,第三方物流只能管理一段,這一段之前與之后,第三方物流是管理不到的。

      舉個例子,一箱牛奶在外面曬了兩個小時之后,再把它放進冷藏間,完全沒有用,一旦產品脫冷之后,產品的本質已經發生改變,再把它還原至原來的溫度已經沒有意義。因為前端出現問題,第三方所做的任何工作都浪費了。”

      目前,我國對于冷鏈物流沒有嚴格的服務標準要求,雖然,一部分冷鏈企業自發組織編寫了一些標準,但是由于缺失監管,在激烈的市場競爭下,很多企業為了節約成本,很難真正執行下去。

      成本過高掣肘設備更新

      第三方冷鏈物流所面臨的不僅僅是標準化缺失的問題,設備成本過高也是阻礙冷鏈物流快速發展的重要因素。

      做物流的都知道冷鏈行業是個“砸錢”的行業,從冷庫到車輛,甚至是小小的一扇門都需要高成本的投入,沒有足夠的資本是不可能做冷鏈的。由于冷藏車的費用過高,為節省成本,用塑料瓶裝冰塊夾在貨物中起到簡單“冷藏”效果的“土法”進行運輸成為行業內部的慣用技巧。

      興起于上世紀八九十年代的冷鏈物流企業,現在已經走到了一個關口,設備陳舊、不合時宜,但是更新成本又過高,針對設備更新該何去何從,每個人都有自己的一些看法。

      冷鏈物流現在有許多先進的設備,但是真正使用的企業很少,因為設備不能產生價值。設備是否要更新是一個市場問題,使用者更新任何一種設備,都會綜合考慮價格、使用情況以及后期的一些維護費用。

      冷鏈物流是個高成本行業,必須要將成本做下來,否則很難生存,這也是多數第三方冷鏈物流只是“蜻蜓點水”般地在這個行業短暫停留便“胎死腹中”的主要原因。

      讓倉庫“動”起來
      冷鏈物流的問題不只這些,作為冷鏈物流的一個重要節點,冷庫設計具備著冷凍和物流的雙重屬性,但是多數情況下,冷庫只是起到一個低溫儲藏倉庫的作用,而其物流屬性往往被掩蓋起來。

      我們現在都把冷庫看作是長期固態存儲形式,很多企業在不成規模時選擇在中心位置建立一座大冷庫,從這一個冷庫集中配送。其實,更靈活的方式是從生產開始,增強流程效率,縮減庫房面積,在不同地方建立分倉。這樣,一方面庫房的利用率提高了,占地面積相應減少,另一方面運輸半徑也會變小,便于將貨物轉移到距離終端更近的地方暫時存儲。

      第三方冷鏈物流的涅槃之路

      然而,同冷鏈物流薄弱的供給能力相對應的,是市場對冷鏈物流爆發性的需求增長。

      近年來,隨著生活水平的提高,人們的消費習慣也逐漸發生改變,從消費需求來看,國內的消費者對速凍食品、乳制品、冷飲的需求正在呈現快速增長趨勢。

      然而,“理想雖然豐滿,現實卻是骨感的”,在日益增大的消費需求背后是國內成熟的第三方冷鏈物流企業并不多,沒有形成自己的品牌。

      現在,許多大型生產型企業都采取自營物流模式,而且他們的自營物流比一般的第三方冷鏈物流規模還要大,以白玉、三全為例,在滿足他們自己產品配送的同時,為了解決大量的冷庫、冷藏車在淡季閑置的問題,企業物流正在積極向第三方冷鏈物流的方向發展。

      喜憂參半是第三方冷鏈物流目前面臨的尷尬局面。問題是有的,機遇也是有的,如何讓“從田園到餐桌”不再只是廣告商為人們編制的美夢,需要努力的不僅僅是某個第三方冷鏈物流,而是整個行業的自覺,往深層次說,更需要標準化的立法與貫徹執行。

    標簽: 冷鏈物流  

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