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    政策引領下, 中國冷鏈行業的發展之道

      【中國制冷網】據統計,2018年中國冷鏈物流市場規模達到3,035億元人民幣,比上年增長485億元人民幣,同比增幅19%。同時,據預測2018年中國冷鏈物流需求總量將達到1.8億噸,比上年增長3,300萬噸,同比增長22.1%。從市場規模和需求量來看,中國冷鏈物流市場依舊處于“高速增長、供不應求”的局面。

      近年來冷鏈增長點
      新零售推動的生鮮電商

      縱觀冷鏈物流的增長點中,生鮮電商的作用在近年來異常明顯,加上新零售等新商業模式的出現,可以說是全方位推動了中國冷鏈物流的發展。“盒馬”、“超級物種”、“7FRESH”們這些被冠以新零售、零售革命典型的生鮮電商們,除了將美味帶給了消費者,也加速了冷鏈行業的發展。

      生鮮電商們對于冷鏈物流發展的推動一方面體現在末端配送的創新,例如對于簡易保溫箱的開發,自提冷藏柜的投入使用等等,在保證“最后一公里”方面用足了功夫;另一方面則在于“可追溯”機制的搭建,為了讓消費者放心于品質和保證食品安全,不少生鮮電商企業構建了嚴格有效的“可追溯”機制,如本來生活網能夠追溯到所銷售的每一塊牛排的生產日期和地點。除此之外,對于冷媒的開發和使用亦是生鮮電商的關注點,使用成本低、效果好的冷媒有助于生鮮電商降低物流成本和損耗成本,以獲取更高的利潤。

      當然,為了保證產品的品質,中國生鮮電商們在其他環節也做了不少努力,甚至成立了相應的冷鏈企業來為自身服務,這在一定程度上推動了行業的發展,但是這些企業基本上還未能形成社會化的服務能力。

      龐大市場自身推動

      物流行業愈發重視同樣在推動行業不斷前行。“十萬億”的市場挑動著每一個物流企業們的神經,也吸引著局外人的目光。無論是順豐與夏暉合作成立新公司,還是京東入股步步高亦或是萬科啟動冷鏈物流園業務,均表明了各路企業們對于冷鏈的重視。同時,在物流成為支柱性產業后,冷鏈也成為了重中之重。自2017年以來,政府與相關物流企業發布了眾多關于冷鏈物流的意見和標準,以此從規范化和標準化來推動冷鏈行業的發展。

      因此,“前置倉”、“冷鏈生態圈”等概念被眾多企業付諸實踐,例如盒馬提出“門店及倉儲”,以分布式倉儲降低配送時間,并降低總體倉儲成本;而鮮易供應鏈則是構建了完善的DC、TC、PC、EC網絡,能夠為用戶提供存儲、流通加工、檢驗檢疫及保稅等一體化服務。

      固有痛點和新需求
      舊有痛點

      盡管如此,冷鏈行業痛點仍然存在。首先依舊是標準化和體系還未完善。相比于前幾年,近幾年政府和行業的重視已經讓冷鏈行業開始有標準可依,但是部分環節的標準化依舊不完善,亦影響了服務質量。例如在農產品的生產源頭,大量的農產品并沒有通過標準化的冷鏈手段進行儲藏和運輸,直接導致了農產品在該環節的損耗。其次是硬件設計的缺乏,包括冷鏈倉儲、冷鏈車輛等等,一直是中國冷鏈行業的痛點和需求,也影響到了農產品反季銷售。此外,行業集中度低導致各企業的標準不一,亦成為了提高冷鏈服務水平的制約因素。

      此外,現有冷鏈技術對于肉食品的保存無法均衡口感和安全(此處主要是指因溫度變化導致品質的安全問題),基本只能以犧牲口感和部分營養價值來保證安全,對此有些生鮮企業甚至采取了活體進口的方法來盡量保證口感,但此舉成本極大,而且亦不能夠成為長久之計。因此如何在保證口感和營養價值不缺失的情況下還能夠保證安全,成為了肉食品領域的痛點和需求。

      頻出的意見和標準

      舊有痛點還未去除,冷鏈行業又產生了新的需求。首先是意見和標準頻出,例如交通部日前發布的《關于加快發展冷鏈物流保障食品安全促進消費升級的實施意見》(下文簡稱《意見》),以及《食品低溫配送中心規劃設計指南》等等,均表達了對于冷鏈進一步規范化、標準化的訴求。尤其是《意見》中提出了包括加快完善冷鏈物流設施設備,鼓勵冷鏈物流企業創新發展,提升冷鏈物流信息化水平等一系列具體要求,力爭到2020年,初步形成全程溫控等冷鏈物流服務體系,基本解決“斷鏈”問題。

      新用戶需求

      其次是用戶需求。正如上文所言,大量的農產品在前端缺乏冷鏈保障而導致了高損耗率, 因此冷鏈物流企業目前已經開始關注“最先一公里”。由于“最后一公里”更接近消費市場,更容易成為影響服務評價的因素,因此大多數企業均研發和定制了一系列適用于配送的技術和制度,反而忽略了生產端的冷鏈保障。而缺乏冷鏈保障導致的高損耗率最終成為了高成本,亦是生鮮電商高成本的關鍵之一。此外,如何通過更先進的技術來保證營養和安全,同時又不破壞相應的口感,也成為了冷鏈行業必須要面對的課題。

      新時代下的新機遇

      當然,未來冷鏈的發展仍然將以需求帶動,也將集中在以下幾大方面。

      農副產品的“最先一公里”

      首先是農產品“最先一公里”的需求。正如上文所言,在首端缺乏冷鏈保障的農產品造成了相當大的損耗,對此國家發改委、商務部等24個有關部門聯合發布了《關于推動物流高質量發展 促進形成強大國內市場的意見》(發改經貿【2019】352號),其中重點談到了聚焦農產品流通“最先一公里”,加強農產品產地冷鏈物流體系建設,并鼓勵企業利用產地現有常溫倉儲設施改造或就近新建產后預冷、貯藏保鮮、分級包裝等冷鏈物流基礎設施,開展分揀、包裝等流通加工業務。

      冷鏈服務具有一定的技術和資金壁壘,大部分中小用戶企業無法自行建立類似的作業模式,因此這對于冷鏈物流的相關產業而言是不小的商機。而能夠把握這些商機的關鍵在于,一方面能夠提供符合用戶企業需求的冷鏈服務,尤其是中國農產品生產方式相對落后,如何以低成本在產地處完成集中冷鏈處理值得企業思考。當然冷鏈物流企業可以考慮與產地、銷售平臺合作,通過銷售平臺將產地端產品集合,冷鏈物流企業集中提供冷鏈服務,產地則不需擔心因冷鏈確實而帶來的額外損失。此外,這樣還能夠有助于農產品淡旺季造成的冷庫供需上的時空不平衡。

      中央廚房勢在必行

      其次是在于中央廚房的推行。據統計,2017年中國中央廚房市場規模達到了2,259.7億元人民幣,增長率為18.6%。而隨著連鎖餐飲業的不斷發展壯大,如何保證安全、大規模的為每家連鎖店配送食材,也將成為影響其市場表現的重要因素,在這樣的要求下,中央廚房的需求也將進一步擴大。

      例如2018年5月盒馬進一步提出餐飲零售化的構想:一方面,統籌上百個聯營的餐飲品牌,基于零售場景打造mini中央廚房概念,即餐飲品牌商在盒馬店內的檔口承擔的是mini中央廚房而非飯店的角色所加工的產品可以在盒馬線上銷售,直達消費者。此外,國家政策同樣也在推動中央廚房的發展,例如在2019年3月18日,全國物流標準化技術委員會組織召開國家標準《食品低溫配送中心規劃設計指南》審查會等等。由此可見,對于身處中央廚房規劃和建設市場的企業而言,也將迎來一輪新的機遇和競爭。

      連鎖餐飲的配送需求

      再次則是連鎖餐飲的爆發,尤其是休閑餐飲市場(如飲品店、快餐店)等。以奶茶店為例,截止2018年第三季度末,全國現制茶飲門店數量達到41萬之多,一年增長了74%,各種“網紅”品牌層出不窮,而且能夠迅速覆蓋重點市場,更重要的是,據專業人士透露,中國奶茶市場容量預計能夠達到986億元人民幣,市場潛力巨大。在這樣的市場需求下,對于奶茶店食材的配送成為了品牌商是否能夠快速、牢固地占領市場的關鍵,亦成為了冷鏈服務商們的新商機。尤其是自2014年以來,奶茶類商品進入了以現泡茶和新鮮牛奶結合的模式,使得對食材的運輸冷鏈要求開始凸顯。同樣展現需求的還在于咖啡行業,尤其是以瑞幸咖啡為首的“新零售”咖啡品牌,從2017年成立到2018年底,其門店數量已經達到2 ,000家左右。其上游的供應鏈固然重要,但是到門店的冷鏈配送同樣值得冷鏈服務商們的注意。據倫敦國際咖啡組織統計,中國的咖啡消費市場每年增長速度達到了驚人的15%,預計到2025年,中國將成長為1萬億元人民幣的巨型咖啡消費帝國。因此,對于冷鏈服務商而言,這又將是一次不小的機遇。

      冷鏈物流“綠色可循環”

      此外,冷鏈物流也開始追求“綠色可循環”。在2019年“兩會”期間,蘇寧控股集團董事長張近東提出《制定循環包裝國家標準,建成綠色包裝回收體系》的建議,其中對冷鏈物流的綠色化發展提出了新的思考。隨著生鮮電商的迅速發展,冷鏈服務所需的包裝和保溫耗材也水漲船高,并成為了冷鏈行業高成本的原因之一。據統計,目前中國每年產生近3億個泡沫箱及10億冰袋的冷鏈耗材,加之冷鏈包裝廢棄物專業處理費用較高,導致部分企業直接不處理。當然,目前已經有部分企業開始使用可循環使用的周轉箱和冷媒,例如跨越速運已經提供了可回收再利用的冰袋,這在一定程度上能夠幫助企業降低部分成本和對環境的損害。但是,這些包裝和冷媒的回收卻不容樂觀,無回收點或回收人和無法及時回收都成為推行該操作的重要障礙,這不僅需要企業的努力,同時也需要培養消費者的使用習慣。

      面對10萬億的“蛋糕”,冷鏈物流企業們依舊“任重而道遠”,隨著如今政策、資金、技術等推動力已然開始發力,中國冷鏈物流市場格局將愈發清晰。

    標簽: 冷鏈  

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