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    352號文件發布下,冷鏈物流如何發展?

      【中國制冷網】日前,國家發改委、商務部等24個有關部門聯合發布了《關于推動物流高質量發展 促進形成強大國內市場的意見》(發改經貿【2019】352號),其中涉及多項冷鏈物流發展意見,這對行業發展而言意義重大。

      1、加強農產品物流骨干網絡和冷鏈物流體系建設

      聚焦農產品流通“最先一公里”,加強農產品產地冷鏈物流體系建設,鼓勵企業利用產地現有常溫倉儲設施改造或就近新建產后預冷、貯藏保鮮、分級包裝等冷鏈物流基礎設施,開展分揀、包裝等流通加工業務。

      解讀:第一句話在今年的一號文件中已經提出,說明國家各部門在推動冷鏈物流發展方面的思路是一貫的,統一的。農產品物流骨干網絡在我國尚未完善,它的建設需要結合全國各地主產區、消費地、產品特色、交通環境、基礎設施等多方面因素來建設,需要國家和地方協同共施。只有農產品骨干物流網絡健全,農產品的流通成本才能降低,流通效率才能進一步提升。

      “冷鏈最先一公里”體系的建設,是整個全程冷鏈體系是否牢靠的基石,因為一旦產品在采摘后不能及時預冷、貯藏和分級,將會對農產品流通周期造成不可逆的影響,即便后續冷鏈過程做的再好也無濟于事,甚至會造成更大的資源浪費。這就好比,戰術的勤奮只會放大戰略失誤造成的影響。

      近年來有很多地方的農產品發生滯銷現象,造成農民損失嚴重。其中很重要的原因就是產后缺乏預冷、貯藏和加工,無法實現錯季銷售和品牌升值。因此要建立健全農產品產后服務體系,從產地集配中心、冷庫等商品化處理設施入手,推動農產品在田頭就變成標準化的高附加值商品,把農產品產業鏈增值更多留在鄉村、惠及農民。這方面可以借鑒政府+企業合作社+生鮮平臺、銷地農批市場、大型商超的建設和運營思路,保障生產與銷售渠道的高效對接。

      此外,宜充分利用現有的常溫設施,避免資源重復浪費,日本有很多田間地頭的加工廠,都是一些普通廠房改造而成,雖不起眼但很實用。

      2、鼓勵企業創新冷鏈物流基礎設施經營模式,開展多品種經營和“產銷雙向合作”,提高淡季期間設施利用率。

      解讀:如何提升淡季期間設施的利用率,一直是政府、企業包括農業合作社頭疼的問題,比如產地冷庫,很多地方政府為了扶植當地農業做大做強,前期投入資金建設冷庫,但往往由于農作物淡旺季明顯而導致冷庫的閑置和荒廢。改變這種局面比較切實可行的方式,一是開展多品種經營和種植手段,減少明顯淡旺季;二是推行產地移動式冷庫,即需即用,多地共享,提高利用率。

      在冷鏈物流基礎設施的經營上,可以采取政府投建占股、企業收費經營的運作模式,充分發揮政府和市場的雙重引導作用,這可能會比一味地資金補貼、以獎代補效果更好。

      3、加強郵政、快遞物流與特色農產品產地合作,暢通農產品“上行”通道。

      解讀:農產品上行一直是老大難問題,尤其是生鮮農產品,主要原因還是產地冷鏈物流網點太少,無法同骨干物流網絡有效銜接。

      截至當前,全國郵政和快遞末端網點備案數量已突破10萬個,這些網點猶如末梢神經一般滲透到各個農產品產地。如果能把這些網點賦上冷鏈基本功能,或許會成為打通農產品上行通道的利器法寶。

      當年,和路雪為了鋪設全國的雪糕、冰淇淋等產品的縣鄉銷售網點,給幾萬個小賣部配套冰柜,此舉或對如何快速建立農村冷鏈體系有所啟發。

      4、發展第三方冷鏈物流全程監控平臺,加強全程溫度、濕度監控,減少“斷鏈”隱患,保障生鮮農產品品質和消費安全。

      解讀:信息監控能防止企業為降低成本而慣用的不打冷、少打冷,從而保障食品安全。從技術角度而言,冷鏈物流監控平臺的實現不成問題,關鍵還是成本增加因素的考量。

      成本的一加一減,背后是冷鏈價格與價值的博弈。只有明白這一點,多方位引導消費市場充分認可并愿意為冷鏈物流的價值買單,冷鏈行業才能盡早實現全程不斷鏈。

      當然,前期政府部門可與行業協會共同推動監控信息平臺的建設,鼓勵良幣驅劣幣。

      5、鼓勵和引導大型農產品流通企業拓展社區服務網點,減少中間環節,降低農產品物流成本。

      解讀:我國農產品傳統流通特點是流通環節多,層層加價,損耗嚴重,這導致的結果是菜賤傷農,菜貴傷民。

      因此,鼓勵和引導大型農產品流通企業拓展社區服務網點,可以有效減少中間環節和損耗,打造城鄉高效配送體系,生鮮社區店是未來發展趨勢。這其中應該與互聯網深度結合,打通F2C生態閉環,大型農產品流通企業應占主導地位,即產業+互聯網,而非互聯網+產業。

      6、發展“生鮮電商+冷鏈宅配”“中央廚房+食材冷鏈配送”等冷鏈物流新模式,改善消費者體驗。

      解讀:無論是生鮮電商,還是中央廚房加工的餐飲外賣,都需要邁開兩條腿才能發展的好,一是產品要好,二是冷鏈物流要好,二者缺一不可。這也是為什么全國95%的生鮮電商平臺都不盈利的重要原因,因為大多數冷鏈物流不到位,冷鏈不好就會導致消費者體驗差,粘性差。去年以來為數不多的融到資的生鮮電商平臺,都把錢投到冷鏈物流體系的建設,這很能說明問題。

      7、推動地方全面落實冷鏈物流企業用水、用電、用氣與工業同價政策。

      解讀:這里面重點要提的是冷庫,眾所周知冷庫是能耗大戶,據鏈庫統計2018年全國冷庫耗電總費用超過800億元。盡管2013年國家發改委曾下發通知,規定農產品批發市場、農貿市場用電、農產品冷鏈物流的冷庫用電價格實現與工業用電同價,但目前很多地方的冷庫用電性質仍屬于商業用電,這一現象亟需推動改變。

      8、探索開行國內冷鏈貨運班列和“點對點”鐵路冷鏈運輸。

      解讀:冷鏈零擔市場未來發展前景巨大,因為小B和C端客戶需求眾多,在這種情況下探索冷鏈公路和鐵路貨運班列,將有助于建立冷鏈零擔市場布局優勢,目前像京東物流等已全面開放這一領域的業務。

      此外,隨著公轉鐵和多式聯運改革的推進,以及“一帶一路”的全面推進,鐵路冷鏈物流的運力正逐步釋放,在超過1000公里的長距離運輸上鐵路冷鏈物流無論是價格還是時效都有優勢。需要強調的是,鐵路冷鏈的點對點運輸,并不會完全取代公路冷鏈運輸,兩端的貨物集散、短駁、配送都需要與公路冷鏈協作配合。

      9、研發使用適應生鮮農產品網絡銷售的可重復使用的冷藏箱或保冷袋,提升配送效率。

      解讀:白色泡沫箱+冰排(袋),一直是冷鏈終端配送的主要工具,隨著我國生鮮電商市場規模的快速增長,每年隨之產生近3億個泡沫箱及10億冰袋的冷鏈耗材。雖然現有工具的好處是成本低,但缺點同樣明顯:白色污染、食品安全隱患(如直接接觸)。在歐美、日本等冷鏈發達國家,很少見到泡沫箱的使用,基本都是可重復使用、可折疊回收的冷藏箱(罩)。日前,全國人大代表,蘇寧控股集團董事長張近東在兩會上也提到此事,可見意義重大。

      10、在貨物來源可追溯、流向可追蹤的情況下,研究出臺允許動檢證變更目的地的操作規范,為冷鏈物流跨區域分撥提供便利。

      解讀:目前各地的動檢證政策不一樣,流程非常復雜,對于肉制品的運輸和銷售效率影響比較大。動檢證的目的是確保貨物來源可追溯、流向可追蹤,這可以通過信息手段和生產端的檢驗檢疫來控制,沒有必要每個環節都通過動檢證來約束。我國進口肉制品就是采用原產地備案和海關檢疫查驗的方式,一旦通過就可以全國流通,這方面的經驗可以借鑒。
     

    標簽: 冷鏈物流  

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