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    冷鏈物流企業如何把握新零售的契機

      【中國制冷網】新零售=生鮮?

      以阿里的盒馬鮮生、蘇寧的蘇鮮生、永輝的超級物種等為代表的生鮮商超得以從各種零售新業態中脫穎而出。生鮮食品容易腐爛變質,而消費者對食材品質與安全性的高要求,使得物流運輸能力成為整個生鮮行業的關鍵所在。這就必然牽扯出一個新的領域——冷鏈物流!

    冷鏈物流企業如何把握新零售的契機

      冷鏈物流簡介

      由于生鮮產品從出廠到運輸,再到消費者手中,需要消耗較長時間,不利于其保鮮,因此,人們想到,將冷凍工藝與制冷技術應用至生鮮產品的物流過程中,從而確保易腐易損產品在生產、貯藏、運輸、銷售到消費前的各環節中,始終處于特定的低溫環境,以求保證質量、減少損耗。這便是所謂的“冷鏈物流”,通常應用于食品與農產品領域。

      本質上講,冷鏈物流還是物流,其核心目的自然是保障生鮮、快消品以及醫藥行業等特殊商品的品質。因此,除了具有一般物流的特點外,冷鏈物流還具有其他與眾不同的特性。

      第一,冷鏈基礎設施建設不夠完善

      以冷庫為例,我國冷庫容量低的問題仍然突出。數據顯示,2016年我國冷庫總容量達到10742億立方米,位居世界第三,而我國的人均冷庫容量卻與冷庫總容量呈倒掛態勢。2016年,全球人均冷庫容量為0.2立方米,而冷鏈物流發展水平較高的國家人均冷庫容量高達0.96立方米,我國人均冷庫容量僅為0.143立方米。同時,我國沿海地區冷鏈基礎設施相對分布較多,然而,承擔了全國大部分生鮮農產品批發交易的中西部地區卻冷鏈資源匱乏。

      不可否認的是,冷鏈物流的基礎配套設施初始投資成本巨大,而這種投資在尚未形成規模效應時,盈利能力總是較低的。因此,僅靠民間資本力量很難實現快速發展與完善。發達國家的經驗告訴我們,在發展初期,大多是由政府直接投資建設冷庫等大型冷鏈物流基礎設施,而我國在這方面仍有大量工作要做。

      第二,冷鏈市場尚無統一的規范標準

      我國冷鏈物流相關的法律法規和標準體系都不甚健全,缺乏必要的行業標準和監管機制。加之冷鏈運輸貨品種類繁雜,各地對于冷庫、車輛的規范化要求差異大,對冷鏈行業的標準設立而言也是一種障礙。從本質上來看,冷鏈是通過集約化、標準化降低成本,從而實現利潤的,所以前端企業生產、加工包裝以及政策都亟需標準化和規范化。

      第三,冷鏈信息化程度還有待進步

      總體上看,同發達國家相比,我國冷鏈物流的各個環節目前還缺乏系統化、規范化、連貫性的運作,導致“斷鏈”現象嚴重,冷鏈腐損率較高。在新零售熱潮下,冷鏈物流的發展還應進一步得到物聯網、大數據、云計算與人工智能等新興技術的賦能,進而通過技術集成化、信息系統化、裝備智能化、運作集約化的轉型與升級,提高效率,降低成本。

      盡管我國冷鏈物流行業處于起步階段,距離國際先進水平尚有一定差距,但國家的重視與企業的發力,讓人們看到了新零售時代里冷鏈的盛宴已經在路上。未來,冷鏈物流將會如何發展,廣大消費者們又能獲得哪些全新體驗,且讓我們拭目以待。

    標簽: 冷鏈物流  

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