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  • 當前位置: 制冷網 > 冷凍冷藏 > 正文

    我國冷鏈物流園區現狀與發展趨勢

      【中國制冷網】在我國的食品生產與流通消費過程中,落后的冷凍保鮮技術不僅造成了巨大的經濟損失,還給人們的飲食安全構成了威脅。在食品安全事故頻發的今天,食品的保鮮越來越受到來自消費者、供應商、零售商的廣泛重視,冷鏈物流這一專業性較強的物流市場也因此急劇升溫,成為投資者關注的焦點。

    我國冷鏈物流園區現狀與發展趨勢

      (一)冷鏈物流園區的現狀

      隨著冷鏈物流逐漸升溫,與之配套的基礎設施也得到快速發展。以冷藏車來說,據統計,2008年我國冷藏車保有量不到5萬輛,之前十年每年增長速度不足8%,而近幾年冷藏車的增長速度為15%左右。冷庫的增長速度更是突飛猛進,在2010年國家發改委出臺的《農產品冷鏈物流發展規劃》中,我國冷庫總容量為880萬噸(實際總容量已經達到1500萬噸以上),而到2013年底,初步估計我國建成和在建冷庫的總容量已經超過2500萬噸。

      冷鏈物流園區是近幾年才出現的新概念,是我國物流高速發展和冷鏈物流得到充分重視的現象。國外的物流園區涵蓋多種功能,其中包括冷庫和冷產品的物流功能,一般不作為獨立的園區概念出現。而我們為了強調冷鏈的特殊性,將冷產品的集中處理、交易、儲存和配送的建筑群稱為冷鏈物流園區。這一方面體現了冷鏈的重要性,另一方面為園區建設加上了一個吸引眼球的概念。

      冷鏈物流園區在國外很少出現的另一個因素,是其產品流通的特點。美國多數農副產品和水產品按訂單生產和交割,很少有批發市場的交易環節,所以圍繞冷產品交易為主的冷鏈物流園區比較少。而我國冷產品交易環節較多,多次批發交易、多環節運作造成了對冷鏈物流園區的需求。

    我國冷鏈物流園區現狀與發展趨勢

      (二)冷鏈物流園區存在的問題

      我國冷鏈物流園區在快速發展過程中遇到了很多問題。首先是園區建設,其次是園區運營管理。園區的建設屬于戰略投資,它所帶來的影響無論對企業,對社會都將是長期和巨大的。園區的運營雖然也出現很多問題,但管理問題可以逐步改善,而園區規劃定位的失誤會帶來不可挽回的損失。我們強調冷鏈物流園區在規劃建設過程中存在的問題,希望引起管理者和投資者的注意,盡量避免類似情況發生。

    我國冷鏈物流園區現狀與發展趨勢

      (三)冷鏈物流園區規劃建設應采取的方式

      冷鏈物流園區的戰略定位非常重要,園區應該做什么、不應該做什么,園區的選址、運營模式和規模大小等等在此階段要明晰。園區戰略定位不能靠簡單的參觀考察,靠短期的政策引導。戰略定位必須基于當地市場信息,基于行業發展特點,基于國家發展方向和企業的總體戰略做出綜合分析。2012年海南島海口馬村的冷鏈物流園最初計劃建設以蔬菜預冷為主的大型冷庫,但經過戰略研究和定位后,改變為以海產品和水產品冷庫為主的水產品交易中心,避免了園區冷庫的方向性錯誤。

    我國冷鏈物流園區現狀與發展趨勢

      (四)冷鏈物流園區發展的趨勢

      冷鏈物流園區在我國正處在快速發展的上升階段。冷鏈物流園區由于其附屬于流通產業的性質,發展趨勢必然受到經濟發展階段和冷產品流通模式變化的影響。具體分析冷鏈物流園區的發展有以下幾方面特點:

      1、冷鏈物流園區細分化

      隨著商品流通的精細化,配套的物流硬件設施也要求定制化設計。生產型、儲存型和交易型冷鏈物流園區對園區的布局和建筑物的選擇有較大不同。建在產地的物流園區、流轉中樞的物流園區和靠近消費地的物流園區也有區別。運作的產品不同,如蔬菜水果、肉制品或是水產品對冷庫的要求有其特殊性。所以園區建設和冷庫的細分化,既可以節約投資成本,又為物流運作提供了方便。

      2、冷庫建設在流通鏈兩端發展

      目前我國冷產品的流通環節太多,從田間地頭、海洋池塘到百姓餐桌要經過六七個環節甚至更多。隨著商業流通體系的逐步精細化,中間環節會減少。農產品加強前期預冷處理對后續流通過程中的質量影響是非常大的,而我國目前靠近田間地頭的蔬菜水果預冷處理設施嚴重不足。農業產業整合是發展大農業、發展訂單化生產的基礎。伴隨著農產品生產模式的改變,貼近生產種植端的預冷處理和冷庫儲存設施會有較大需求。

      3、冷鏈B2C模式的快速發展

      冷產品的B2C模式需要冷鏈支撐,且對運作要求較高,配送成本比一般貨品的配送成本也高出很多。但隨著百姓消費水平提高,冷鏈宅配將面臨很大的需求。現階段電商靠外包冷鏈物流,外包產品組配包裝的形式將不具有競爭力。自建適合電商冷產品運作的冷庫設施,將會是電商下一步應該考慮的方向。

    標簽: 冷鏈物流  

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