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    冷鏈物流雖搶手但也有瓶頸,未來路在何方?

      【中國制冷網】中國冷鏈物流產業“熱”了起來。

      近幾年,冷鏈物流逐漸進入到人們的視野中,成為物流領域中的一塊藍海。隨著冷鏈物流的熱度高漲,2018年上半年有不少巨頭公司在冷鏈上動作頻頻。

      比如順豐和美國物流巨頭夏暉宣布成立冷鏈物流合資公司;京東物流與中國國際貨運航空開始了一項全球冷鏈物流體系建設合作;阿里巴巴的冷鏈物流版圖上再添馴鹿冷鏈;分別背靠騰訊、阿里巴巴的O2O餐飲配送平臺美團、餓了么也開始布局短途冷鏈。

      照這種情況看,冷鏈物流應是呈現一片欣欣向榮之景,但一直以來,我國冷鏈物流發展進程并不理想,其間仍有諸多問題存在。

    冷鏈物流雖搶手但也有瓶頸,未來路在何方?

      冷鏈物流前行的“攔路虎”:冷庫分布、成本、人才

      我國的冷鏈物流起步比較晚,與發達國家相比存在較大的差距。以冷鏈物流幾個常用指標為例,中國科學院院士周遠曾介紹到,流通率方面,國外基本上都達到了85%以上,我國只有19%;預冷方面,我國預冷果蔬的占比一般為10%,而國外高達95%~100%;在美國,平均每500個人就擁有一輛冷藏車,而我國相同水平的冷藏車擁有量為平均每1.8萬人。

      從這些數據上看,我國冷鏈物流要想追上發達國家的步伐,不是件容易的事,要知道,起碼還有三座大山阻礙了我國冷鏈物流的前行之路。

      第一,冷庫分布不均。據搜狐網報道,華東地區冷庫容量已占到全國冷庫總容量近46%,其中山東、上海、江蘇發展速度較快,冷庫容量居前列。照這么看,冷庫分布存在不均衡的狀況,有可能某些地區沒有建設冷庫,導致該地區消費者無法享受冷鏈的服務。

      以太古冷鏈為例,它的經營模式是倉庫型的,必然會在一些城市建立冷庫,并配套一些冷鏈物流服務。從太古冷鏈官網了解到,太古冷鏈的冷庫大多都分布在華東、華南和華中地區,極少數坐落于華北和西南地區,那必然華北和西南地區享受到的冷鏈服務質量就比較低。而且我國冷鏈物流技術還處于初級發展階段,冷鏈運輸能力不足有可能擴大冷庫分布不均的弊端,導致企業倉儲能力不能充分地發揮出來。

      第二,冷鏈投入成本高。冷鏈物流不僅僅是單純制冷,還要適當的保持恒溫狀態,必然其成本比常溫物流運輸要高。而冷鏈物流成本不是單一的物流成本,還需考慮到產品質量源頭的產品成本,以及因物流服務質量不同而產生的貨損、貨差等綜合成本。

      據搜狐網報道,我國果蔬產地的內陸各省市市場冷庫容量比較低,造成冷鏈物流在生產源頭缺乏預冷,產生源頭“斷鏈”。如果果蔬運輸在源頭“斷鏈”了,那么運送到目的地時果蔬的質量就可能得不到保障,導致果蔬的運輸成本提高了。

      而且,從冷鏈物流的產業鏈來看,中下游的冷鏈倉儲和流通環節都能加大冷鏈運輸的成本。譬如,據中冷聯盟了解,冷庫建設和運營的成本都居高不下,萬噸級冷庫建設成本預算高達4210萬元,年運營成本預算高達1404萬元。可以說,冷鏈物流的綜合成本還是很大的。并且據搜狐網報道,有數據顯示,我國常溫物流運輸的利潤率為10%,冷鏈物流運輸的利潤率僅有8%。而這并不高的利潤率,更是對降低冷鏈物流的高額成本這一現象并沒有起很大的改善作用。

      第三,冷鏈物流人才資源短缺。要知道,冷鏈物流對技術的專業性要求是很高的,包括冷鏈運輸設備以及冷鏈物流信息化體系的建設等,這些都是需要專業的人員來完成的。而據中物聯教育培訓班主任郭肇明掌握的物流行業人員數據顯示,全國每年有20萬的物流專業院校畢業生,但是每年新增的物流崗位卻有130萬之多,尤其是冷鏈物流人才遠遠不能滿足這方面崗位的需求。

      中物聯冷鏈委員會秘書長秦玉鳴曾表示,當前我國冷鏈物流發展太快,專業人才非常緊缺,而我國很少有相關院校可以為企業源源不斷地輸送冷鏈物流人才,企業用人更多只能從基礎培養,時間太長,從而造成冷鏈物流人才斷檔。換句話說,專業物流人才的培養速度與物流業發展速度并不匹配,從而限制了冷鏈物流的發展進度。例如安鮮達、冷鏈馬甲等這些有冷鏈物流業務的企業同樣躲不開冷鏈物流人才資源短缺的問題。

      以上可以看出,一系列問題,還是給冷鏈物流的發展帶來了巨大的阻礙,從而導致了冷鏈物流發展進程緩慢。

      但同時,三大機遇正助力冷鏈物流砥礪前行

      雖然冷鏈物流在發展的過程中存在諸多困難,但仍有不少企業進入該領域跑馬圈地。而現在還有企業愿意涉足該領域,這就說明,冷鏈物流還是有很多機遇出現的。

      第一,提升冷鏈標準化。冷鏈物流標準化是一件不容易的事,尤其是將冷鏈前端標準化,這其中主要需要考慮的是食品安全的問題。譬如,對于海鮮的運輸,大多數人都認為“活既是鮮”,導致不少水產品只能以“活體運輸”,這樣就無法實現標準化,容易導致像2016年末北京各大市場下架活體水產品等這樣的食品安全事件發生。

      因此,所有冷鏈物流企業都需要嚴格把控運輸的產品,從而減少食品安全事件的發生。而像順豐這樣大型的冷鏈物流企業已將冷鏈服務延伸至前端,并且在前端提供了優質的冷藏條件,然后通過高速的渠道運送到用戶手上,這樣便能保證產品的質量。如果整體冷鏈物流企業能將運輸標準化程度提高,那么便能助力該行業發展,使其向前大邁一步。

      第二,“去中心化”、前置倉的嘗試。隨著“新零售”、“零售革命”等新概念的詞出現,可以看出,商業模式逐漸地發生了變動,因此,冷鏈物流企業可以嘗試“去中心化”、前置倉的模式,畢竟去庫存可以帶動商業模式的變革,而且還可在一定程度上減少成本的投入。

      盒馬鮮生創始人侯毅曾表示,集中性的物流一定要有個最佳規模的臨界點,超過臨界點之后效率降低,成本不減反增,因此盒馬鮮生“門店即是倉儲”。對于冷鏈服務商來說,同樣可以采用分布式倉儲或者小型的“微倉”縮短配送時間以及降低成本。

      第三,搭建冷鏈生態圈。對于冷鏈物流大企業來說,主要是完善供應鏈的服務,這便有助于企業的發展。據搜狐網報道,鮮易供應鏈經過10多年發展,融合企業生態和產業生態,由單一的冷鏈運輸發展為供應鏈服務平臺。鮮易供應鏈通過在全國7大區域布局3大溫控園區和25個城市前置倉,構建了完善的DC、TC、PC、EC網絡,為客戶提供存儲、流通加工、檢驗檢疫及保稅等一體化服務。

      要知道,鮮易供應鏈在前端提供了冷鏈服務,在一定程度上能減少產品腐爛的事件發生,以及其完善的網絡布局可以規劃出比較快速的運送路線,光從這兩點看,鮮易供應鏈不僅能實現降價增速,還可以為用戶提供優質的服務,這可以算是一個兩全其美的好方法。可見,搭建冷鏈生態圈不失為一個冷鏈物流企業發展的好方向。

      綜上所述,冷鏈物流的發展空間還是很大的,那么因此想分一杯羹的人就多了,而企業們在抓住機遇的同時,也要搞清楚行業發展過程中有可能會遇到什么樣的挑戰。

      面對千億市場規模,冷鏈物流將迎來哪些挑戰?

      據中商產業研究院預測,2018年中國冷鏈物流市場規模將近3000億元。到2020年,市場規模將近4700億元。如此看來,冷鏈物流市場前景一片光明,但面對千億市場規模,企業們布局冷鏈市場的同時,也將會面臨冷鏈物流給出的各種挑戰。

      一方面,冷鏈物流企業各自為戰,缺少整合能力。就目前的情況來看,我國冷鏈物流企業小而散,并且市場上約有90%的冷鏈物流企業是區域性的,集中度比較低,與美國等發達國家比較,尚沒有一家可以面向全球甚至全國的冷鏈倉儲企業。要知道,發達國家的冷鏈企業大多都采取合作的方式,分工較明確。而國內的冷鏈企業為了爭奪市場,大多都各自作戰,無法形成規模效應,容易拖累冷鏈物流行業整體的發展進度。

      據搜狐網報道,2017年中國冷鏈物流服務企業前15強,其中供應鏈型最為集中,倉儲型和配送型相對較少,但是無論是供應鏈型還是運輸型,其發展基本以獨立為主,鮮有交流和合作。京東、順豐等企業們為了搶占市場份額,自然會在需求旺盛的地區插上自己的旗幟而忽略了其他地區,導致需求大的地區上出現較多同質化的建設,而其他地區卻無冷鏈可用。

      如果國內冷鏈物流要想追上國外的發展進度,企業們就要加強整合資源的能力,發展合作關系。而這之間要如何找到利益平衡點,就需要企業之間不斷摸索,可以說,這是冷鏈物流發展進程中必須要面臨的挑戰。

      另一方面,冷鏈物流信息化水平較低。冷鏈物流不同于普通的物流,其對硬件水平具有較強的要求,譬如應用衛星定位、物流網、移動互聯網等先進信息技術對運送車輛定位以及全程溫度監控。而我國整體的物流信息化水平比較低,冷鏈物流行業的信息化現狀更是不容樂觀。譬如一些大企業的冷鏈運營人員大多數都是從普通物流轉崗過來的,不僅對冷鏈特性不熟悉,而且對冷鏈物流的運營要求掌握程度低。

      要知道,信息化是冷鏈物流發展的必經之路,如果信息化水平不提高,那么冷鏈物流可能會有信息堵塞、資源分配等問題出現,造成冷鏈物流全過程不夠透明化,在一定程度上會拉低運輸的效率。所以說,冷鏈物流企業要想提高運作效率,如何提高信息化水平是其面臨的一大挑戰。

      總而言之,冷鏈物流市場、企業高速擴展的同時,行業內也有很多問題尚未解決。隨著冷鏈物流的發展態勢向好,未來的發展不僅有機遇出現,而且還面臨著諸多挑戰。那么冷鏈物流行業要想發展壯大,就需要突破目前的瓶頸,只有這樣,冷鏈物流行業才能蒸蒸日上。之后,冷鏈物流會有何展現,這讓人無比好奇且期待。

    標簽: 冷鏈物流  

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